|Solstice yf refrigerant||Developed for auto air conditioning
|HFO||Describes an organic fluorine compound called hydrofluoroolefin|
|1234||Stands for a specific compound:
1 = one double bond
2 = carbon atoms
3 = hydrogens atoms
4 = fluorine atoms
|yf||Denominates the specific isomer (position of the fluorine atoms)|
|MAC Directive||Starting in January 2011, all new vehicle types must have an air conditioning refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) below 150. From 2017 on, this will apply to all new vehicles. This is based on the MAC Directive (2006/40/EG), passed in July 2006.|
|Development||Honeywell and DuPont, in a joint development agreement, have developed a new low global warming potential refrigerant to replace R-134a. They are commercializing the product separately. Honeywell is selling the product under the brand name Solstice® yf refrigerant.|
|Environmental||Solstice yf refrigerant has a GWP of|
|Approval||Solstice yf refrigerant can be used in in Europe, Japan, Korea, China and the U.S. Under the ECE Agreement, Solstice yf refrigerant is also approved in Germany.
Solstice yf refrigerant is registered under the EU chemical regulation REACH, and is included in the U.S. E.P.A.’s SNAP Program (Significant New Alternatives Policy). With this program, the EPA evaluates new and improved substances that replace ozone-depleting substances.
|Time of Adoption||Car manufacturers will receive the product according to their commitments. Supplies will increase once the production capacity is further extended.|
|Quantity||About 600 grams in modern air conditioning equipment; refill in automotive lifecycle, if necessary.|
|Scientific Studies||Honeywell ensures that all products undergo intense testing both internally and externally, especially during the development phase.
SAE International – the international Society of Automotive Engineers with about 133,000 engineers and technicians – has tested Solstice yf refrigerant for five years in their Cooperative Research Program. Eighteen international, independent scientific institutions and 15 international car manufacturers and component suppliers have participated in this program.These industry participants include: Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, Fiat, Ford/Volvo, GM/Opel, Honda, Porsche, PSA, Renault, Jaguar/Land Rover, Toyota and VW, as well as Conti Tech, Delphi, Denso, DuPont, Freudenberg, Goodyear, Maflow, Valeo and Visteon.
SAE has concluded that Solstice yf refrigerant is safe for use in automobiles.
|Crash Tests||The automotive manufacturers and component suppliers have tested Solstice yf refrigerant in detail during the SAE Cooperative Research Program. They have modern testing facilities and broad experience in conducting these tests.
Peugeot has conducted a crash test with Solstice yf refrigerant in a Peugeot 308 at 56 km/h (in accordance to ECE 94). The engine had been running for a long time and was particularly hot.
|Safety||Note: now there are two classes under 1272/2008:Category Criteria
Class 1 is extremely flammable and Class 2 is flammable
Tests under real-life conditions have shown that the product does not ignite on surfaces up to 800 degrees Celsius. The auto ignition temperature is also established using a test protocol. It is set at 405 degrees Celsius.
|Solstice yf refrigerant||A refrigerant that has been specifically developed for mobile air conditioning in vehicles. It is reliable, has undergone intensive testing, and is energy and cost efficient.|
|GWP||The GWP (Global Warming Potential) indicates how much a material can contribute to global warming compared to CO2.
Solstice yf refrigerant has an ultra low global warming effect. The GWP is <1 - significantly below the EU threshold of 150.
|Directives and Regulations in the EU||1907/2006/EG (REACH; Category 1000+ p.a.)|
|Possible Environmental Impact of Refrigerants||Environmental impact generally occurs when the product leaks from the equipment.
Solstice yf refrigerant has the lowest lifecycle climate performance compared to CO2 and HFC-134a, regardless of region. Calculations were made based on model tests for climates in Phoenix, Arizona; Frankfurt, Germany; Tokyo, Japan; and Athens, Greece. Results were presented by the JAMA-JAPIA consortium at the 2008 SAE Alternative Refrigerant Systems Symposium in Phoenix, Arizona in June 2008.
|Emissions||Similar to all other refrigerants – no matter whether they are natural or synthetic – it is possible that Solstice yf refrigerant can emit from equipment. These emissions would have an impact on global warming.
There is a distinction between direct emissions, those caused by leaks, and indirect emissions – those caused by energy consumption when the equipment runs with the refrigerant. This would be, for example, the amount of fuel used to run the air conditioning system.
|Direct Emissions||Direct emissions via leakages in the equipment have been minimized as part of the F-Gas Regulation. High quality and safety standards during production and across the whole value chain have tremendously improved. Containment and disposal of Solstice yf refrigerant also avoids subsequent emissions. In case of an emission, the impact will be very small – due to the GWP of <1, compared to 1430 for R-134a currently in use.|
|Indirect Emissions||Using Solstice yf refrigerant will have a positive impact on indirect emissions, because the fuel consumption will be lower than with other alternatives.|
|Global Warming Potential||Solstice yf refrigerant has a GWP of <1. This is an ultra-low GWP and well below the threshold of the EU MAC Directive (150).
Solstice yf refrigerant can be recovered and reused by properly trained technicians.
|Environmental Characteristics||Solstice yf refrigerant reacts in the atmosphere via natural processes. In connection with hydroxy radicals (OH radicals) – products that play an important role in reducing air contamination – trifluoric acid (TFA), hydrofluoric acid (HF) and CO2 can be formed. The levels generated from the use of Solstice yf refrigerant in MAC are not expected to raise concerns.|
|TFA||TFA is a natural material that exists in large quantities in the ocean. It stays stable under normal conditions.
The use of Solstice yf refrigerant in MAC is not expected to result in a significant increase in TFA levels, and is expected to be substantially below the Predicted No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) thresholds.
|HF||HF will be washed out of the atmosphere and reacts with calcium sulfate (gypsum) to form calcium fluoride (very stable) and sulphuric acid (dissolves in water).|
|CO2||The CO2 quantities are very low. CO2 degrades via photosynthesis and the carbon cycle.|
|16 September 1987||The signatory states of the UN sign the “Montreal Protocol”. It aims to prevent emissions that harm the earth’s ozone layer.|
|1 January 1989||The “Montreal Protocol” comes into effect.|
|11 December 1997||The signatory states of the UN adopt the “Kyoto Protocol”. Many industrial nations commit themselves to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases until 2012 by 5.2 percent below 1990’s level.|
|8 March 2000||The EU Commission’s European Climate Change Program intensifies the efforts to implement the “Kyoto Protocol”. Working groups discuss options, auto vehicle air conditioning comes into focus.|
|10 October 2000||The EU Environment Council requests from the EU-Commission to consider measures to reduce emissions of F-Gases (fluorinated greenhouse gases) in auto vehicle air conditioning.|
|2003||The European Commission approves HFC-152a, R744 and other refrigerants as possible new refrigerants for motor vehicle air conditioning.|
|16 February 2006||Honeywell presents new, climate-friendly refrigerants.|
|17 May 2006||The EU directive on air conditioning systems in motor vehicles (2006/40/EG, “MAC-directive”) imposes strict requirements on refrigerants applied. Only refrigerants with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of less than 150 will be approved for use in mobile systems.|
|4 July 2006||The EU F-Gas Regulation (EU regulation no. 842/2006) and the MAC-directive of the European Parliament and Council on emissions of F-Gases in auto vehicle air conditioning and on amending directive 70/156/EWG come into effect.|
|13 February 2008||Honeywell and DuPont present the new and market-ready Solstice yf refrigerant at the annual VDA “Alternative Refrigerant Winter Meeting”.|
|1 December 2008||The registration process of Honeywell’s new low global warming potential refrigerant for REACH begins. REACH, the new EU chemicals regulation, requires that chemical substances on their own and in preparations have to be registered to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA).|
|8 December 2008||Honeywell’s low-global-warming-potential refrigerant is deemed acceptable for the use in automobiles by the renowned SAE’s (International Society of Automobile Engineers) International Cooperative Research Program for use in vehicles: “… offering greatest potential to meet environmental and consumer needs”.|
|1 January 2009||After intensive testing of R744, SAE’s International Cooperative Research Program prioritizes Honeywell’s new low global warming potential refrigerant over R744 as the refrigerant for practical use in vehicles.|
|28 May 2009||The German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA) demands a global standard for refrigerants.|
|4 August 2009||Honeywell’s new low global warming potential refrigerant is intensively tested by the Japanese Ministries of Health, Labour and Welfare, Economy, Trade and Industry and of the Environment and approved for practical use.|
|13 October 2009||The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accepts Honeywell’s new low global warming potential refrigerant in its SNAP-program for use as low GWP-refrigerant in auto vehicle air conditioning.|
|5 January 2010||The European Patent Office grants Honeywell the patent for the new low-GWP refrigerant for auto vehicle air conditioning.|
|20 May 2010||Honeywell and DuPont announce a joint venture to manufacture the new low GWP refrigerant.|
|23 July 2010||GM chooses to use Solstice yf refrigerant in cars of its U.S. brands Cadillac, Chevrolet, Buick and GMC from 2013 on.|
|28 February 2011||EPA approves Honeywell’s new low global warming potential refrigerant for use in auto vehicle air conditioning. EPA’s SNAP report criticizes the tests conducted by the German Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung BAM (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) for not fully revealing the test set-up. Thus, tests cannot really be judged scientifically, EPA notes.|
Occupational Health and Safety
Solstice yf refrigerant is a safe refrigerant for use in vehicle air conditioning systems. Numerous laws and other regulations are in place to ensure that when properly used these substances pose no threat to people and the environment.
During development of the product, Honeywell initiated detailed studies that yielded data for the regulatory requirement submissions for chemical substances. Solstice yf refrigerant is already registered as a refrigerant according to the EU REACH regulation. It is approved for use in Japan, South Korea, China and the U.S.
|Applied Amounts||In vehicles: about 600 grams
In car repair shops: usually 10 kg cylinders
|Tests for Regulatory Reviews||1907/2006/EC (REACH; category 1000+ p.a.)
67/548/ECC (Dangerous Substances Directive)
Safety tests performed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
|Additional Tests||Fiat tested Solstice yf refrigerant in a crash test with the Fiat 500, performed at 40 mph (according to EuroNCAP Protocol).
Peugeot tested Solstice yf refrigerant in a crash test with the Peugeot 308, performed at 35 mph (according to ECE 94). The test was conducted at a high temperature.
In both tests, no fires occurred and no toxic substances were released.
|Acceptable Exposure Limits for Solstice yf refrigerant in Daily Use (8 Hour Time Weighted Average)||Acceptable limits: 500 ppm (parts per million) in the workplace (according to the American Industrial Hygienists Association).
Factual Exposure: vehicle: <1 ppm, stationary place: <1 ppm.
|Classifications||Toxicity Screening: Class A (lowest toxicity in accordance with the classification of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, ASHRAE).
H220: (Extremely flammable, but non-toxic according to Regulation (CLP) No. 1272/2008, which replaces 67/548/EEC and introduces two categories of flammability based on the Lower Flammability Limit (<13%) that categorizes gaseous substances A2L (moderately flammable according to ISO 817).
|Flammability||The EU requirements for the classification of gases (Regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures of 30.11.2010, Regulation (EU) No. 1272/2008) designates Solstice yf refrigerant as “extremely flammable”. This classification is solely based on the lower flammability limit and ignores other important parameters such as ignition energy, heat of combustion and flame propagation rate.
The energy required to ignite Solstice yf refrigerant is 5 to 10,000 mJ (Millijoule). By comparison:
|Decomposition Substance: Hydrofluoric Acid||Independent, global testing laboratories have conducted comprehensive tests on Solstice yf refrigerant. Based upon the results of these tests, SAE has concluded that Solstice yf refrigerant is safe for use in mobile air conditioning.
The risk associated with the formation of hydrofluoric acid is similar to that of the current refrigerant, R-134a. Given the many years of safe use of HFC-134a in automobile air conditioning and the lack of any published medical reports indicating exposures to HF, it has been concluded that Solstice yf refrigerant is safe for use in mobile air conditioning.
|(Re)fill, Maintenance and Disposal||High quality as well as safety standards assure a safe supply chain exclusively to car manufacturers, suppliers and qualified specialized companies. It is not distributed to private users.
A/C training prepared by the German Federation for Motor Trades, according to regulation EG No. 307/2008, provides for the safe and proper use of cooling agents.
Guidelines for the application in garages and specialized companies have been developed by third parties.
Trained garage personnel will recover Solstice yf refrigerant for recycling or final disposal.
|Use and Handling Guidelines|
|Solstice yf Use and Handling Guidelines|
|Position Paper on F-Gas Regulation|
|Paper on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances & Lighting Conference Ruediger Fleischer|
|Paper on International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases – Shankland and Singh|
|State of the Industry with Ward Atkinson April 2009|
|EPA Presentation – MAC Industry Actions, Stephen Andersen, December 2008|
|Presentation – Honeywell and DuPont – SAE World Congress, April 2008|
|Chart of greenhouse emissions from refrigerant use|